Mildred Bailey and Native American jazz

March 24, 2012 at 12:49 am (Cross-post, elections, humanism, jazz, Jim D, multiculturalism, music, Native Americans, song)

Michael Steinman of Jazz Lives introduces an open letter to Wynton Marsalis and the ‘Jazz Hall of Fame’ committee:

This open letter from the young singer Julia Keefe is, I think, a very gracious way to discuss an uncomfortable subject. Since Miss Keefe is not in any way polemical, I might take the opportunity for a few lines. In the history of giving honors and recognition to jazz musicians and singers, there has been a fairly clear hierarchy. African-American men got first preference (and under that rubric were included all players whose ethnicity looked in the least similar), then followed by Caucasian men. A long pause ensued, then African-American women, followed by a few women of other ethnicities. This isn’t an attack on Jazz at Lincoln Center, Mr. Marsalis, or any of the other august players and critics connected with JALC . . . but a quick perusal of the evidence will, I think, prove my general contention here correct.

When I was on the hiring committee at my college, we were instructed and encouraged — in the name of fairness, diversity, and equity — to ask ourselves “Who’s missing?” when we considered our prospective candidates. In this context, I believe that the answer to that question can properly begin with the name MILDRED BAILEY at the head of the list. I know that the late Richard M. Sudhalter and Hoagy Carmichael would agree with me.

Here’s Miss Keefe’s letter:

AN OPEN LETTER TO THE NESHUI ERTEGUN JAZZ HALL OF FAME

March 19, 2012

Mr. Wynton Marsalis

c/o Selection Committee

Jazz Hall of Fame at Lincoln Center

33 West 60th Street, 11th Floor

New York, N.Y. 10023

Dear Mr. Marsalis and fellow Selection Committee Members:

My name is Julia Keefe, and I am a student at the Frost School of Music at the University of Miami in Coral Gables, FL, studying vocal jazz performance. I am also a member of the Nez Perce Indian Tribe. Shortly after I first became interested in jazz over ten years ago, I began researching the life of Bing Crosby, who also attended my high school, Gonzaga Prep, in Spokane, WA. I was surprised and happy to learn that Bing Crosby gave credit for his early success to a Native American woman from the Coeur d’Alene Tribe named Mildred Rinker Bailey who had, like me, lived her formative childhood years on her Idaho tribal reservation before moving to Spokane and discovering jazz. I am writing to urge that Mildred Bailey be considered for induction into the Neshui Ertegun Jazz Hall of Fame in recognition of her groundbreaking role in jazz history.

To say that Mildred Bailey inspired me in my chosen vocation as a jazz singer would be a great understatement. But I am not alone. Bing Crosby once said, “I was lucky in knowing the great jazz and blues singer Mildred Bailey so early in life. I learned a lot from her. She made records which are still vocal classics, and she taught me much about singing and interpreting popular songs.” And a sideman from her husband Red Norvo’s band, trumpeter Lyle “Rusty” Dedrick once wrote, “She had a magic. So many people down the line, so many singers, benefited from her, owe debts to her – and they don’t even know it. Mildred Bailey probably never made a bad record; she made many that were excellent, and quite a few considerably better, even, than that.”

As the very first female big band singer in America, Mildred was a role model and inspiration for contemporaries including Billie Holiday, Helen Ward and Ella Fitzgerald. She opened the door of opportunity for every female lead singer who followed the trail she blazed. Her singing style and phrasing caught the ear of aspiring young singers of that era including Tony Bennett and Rosemary Clooney, and still, much later, Linda Ronstadt. She was respected and admired by performers including Frank Sinatra, the Dorsey brothers, Coleman Hawkins and Artie Shaw. A 1944 Time Magazine review of her show at the Café Society in New York called Mildred, “just about the greatest songbird in the U.S.”

Recognition of Mildred Bailey in the Jazz Hall of Fame would, I believe, open a door to a largely neglected and ignored chapter in the history of this All-American art form known as jazz: the involvement of First Americans. When I was living on my own reservation in Kamiah, ID, I came across old photographs of tribal members in small ensembles and quartets, playing jazz. One group, the Lollipop Six, was made up of young Nez Perce men who had learned to play their instruments while attending Indian boarding schools in the early 20th century. I can still recall how proud Lionel Hampton was when he visited our reservation to be honored while attending the international jazz festival at the University of Idaho that still bears his name.

On too many reservations in modern America there are not enough inspirational stories of successful native women who rose above the challenges they faced and helped to change history. But Mildred Rinker Bailey, did just that. Though widely thought to have been a white singer, Mildred was, in fact, a member of the Coeur d’Alene Tribe. Mildred once called traditional Indian singing, “a remarkable training and background” for a singer. “It takes a squeaky soprano and straightens out the clinkers that make it squeak; it removes the bass boom from the contralto’s voice,” she said. “This Indian singing does this because you have to sing a lot of notes to get by, and you’ve got to cover a lot of range.” Every Native American who has ever attended a tribal ceremony, whether a feast, a memorial, or a modern pow-wow, knows exactly what Mildred Bailey was talking about here. I believe that Mildred Bailey’s success as a jazz vocalist is grounded in her early vocal training and development from singing traditional tribal songs as a young girl on the Coeur d’Alene Indian Reservation.

I would deeply appreciate the chance to provide you and the other selection committee members, and your entire international voting panel, with a complete packet of information that I have collected while researching the remarkable career of the first female vocalist in America to sing with a big band. Recognizing Mildred Bailey’s pioneering, ground breaking accomplishment, would do honor to the Neshui Ertegun Hall of Fame, and provide Indian tribes from across this country a symbol of their own contribution to the rich cultural heritage of a uniquely American art form that I have come to love, thanks in large part to Mildred Bailey.

Respectfully,

Julia Keefe

Nez Perce Tribal member #4152

Frost School of Music, Class of 2012

www.whereismildred.com

www.juliakeefe.com

Below: Thanks for the Memory, Mildred…

5 Comments

  1. Mildred Bailey and Native American jazz | realitynow2012 said,

    […] Comment […]

  2. rob8urcakes said,

    @JuliaK
    Brilliant letter Julia, and even though I’m tucked away in Scotland UK, you’ve brought this item to everyone’s attention Worldwide, so I’d like to thank you sincerely for doing so.

    I’ve also shared this page with people others via http://twitter.com/Rob8urcakes

    Wishing you all the success you clearly deserve Julia.

    Rob
    xx

  3. Jim Denham said,

    Mildred didn’t often refer to her Native American heritage, but did perform just one song about it. She recorded ‘From The Land of the Sky Blue Water’ with (then-) husband Red Norvo’s band in 1938. This is a remake with a band including (again) Norvo, plus trumpeter Roy Eldridge and pianist Teddy Wilson in 1944 (it’s fourth down on the playlist on the right):
    http://archive.org/details/PaulBarronOrch-royEldridge-redNorvo-TeddyWilson1944

  4. Jim Denham said,

    From Jazz Lives:

    John P. Cooper | March 22, 2012 at 10:59 PM |

    Mildred Bailey
    Lee Wiley
    Kay Starr
    Jack Teagarden
    Frankie Trumbauer
    Pee Wee Russell
    Big Chief Moore
    Keely Smith
    Oscar Pettiford

    JSA | March 23, 2012 at 10:26 PM |

    There was also that cat from Washington, a certain Edward K. Ellington… His maternal grandmother had African-American and Native-American ancestors, if I am not mistaken?

  5. Mildred Bailey | foremothers said,

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