The sad story of Clarence Armstrong

February 28, 2010 at 5:50 pm (Disability, good people, jazz, Jim D, mental health, sport, United States)

Like all the best jazz writing, the Jazz Lives blog is about humanity as well as music:

This is Tom Cosentino’s incredibly touching piece on Clarence Armstrong, Louis’s adopted son — someone Tom knew in his Bronx childhood.  Blessings on Tom, on Clarence, on Louis, and on Ricky Riccardi for letting us know about this essay:

Clarence 'Hatfield' Armstrong


Last night I watched a documentary on the Ovation television network on jazz legend Louis Armstrong. I’ve always been fascinated with the man known as “Satchmo,” not only because of his music, which I love, but because of a boyhood tie that I have to him.

During the course of the documentary, reference was made to Louis’ adopted son, who was retarded. No name was given, but I knew what they were talking about, for he was my friend Clarence, a person I first knew as a little boy as Ooga Booga.

I grew up in the northeast Bronx on a street called Oakley. The cross street was Fenton Ave, and a few house up that block was a woman named Miss Lillian. That was the house that Clarence lived in as well. Growing up, I didn’t have a lot of friends until I was 8 and I was allowed to start playing in the street and nearby school yard of my boyhood school, P.S. 78. From my backyard, I would see Clarence pass my house every day, wearing his Mets cap. I never really talked with him. Then, when I started playing ball in the street with the other kids up my block, I heard them call him by another name, that of “Ooga Booga.” The kids were afraid of him and would tease him for chewing on his tongue. When they would see him they would taunt him with the cry of “Hey, Ooga Booga, Hey Ooga Booga” and then run. I’m ashamed to say, I joined in.

Then, one day, Clarence called me out and said he would tell my father. When I was home that night, I asked my parents about Clarence. They then told me that he was the son of Louis Armstrong. They even told me that Louis used to come up to the house to see Clarence when they first moved in. I knew Louis Armstrong was a musician, and knew him from television and the song, Hello Dolly. What I didn’t know was that Miss Lillian had married Clarence under an arrangement with Louis Armstrong. They had a son who used to play the trumpet out of his window all the time. However, he later died, although I do not know the reasons.

Knowing now the background of Clarence, I was carrying the guilt of being one of the abusive kids taunting him. The next time I saw him, I didn’t run but said hello. Clarence started talking to me about his love, baseball. This would begin years of dialogue on the Mets. Even though I was a Yankees fan, Clarence knew I loved baseball too. He would make up trades for the Mets, ringing my door bell to tell me the Mets got Reggie Smith from the Red Sox or Tony Perez from the Reds and other such All-Stars. Of course, they never traded anyone for these players, but I caught on and just kept the discussion going. Many times, he would ring my doorbell to tell me his news. My dad or mom would have to rescue me by coming out to tell me to finish my home work or have dinner.

I remember the one trade that was really made that thrilled Clarence was when the Mets got Willie Mays from the Giants. Clarence was literally jumping for joy that day. He would often jump up and down when he was excited, yelling as loud as he could. He was a little boy in a grown man’s body.

I communicated my discovery of Clarence’s background and love for baseball to my friends and they quickly caught on too. Soon Clarence began hanging out with us, watching us play. We’d even let him coach some times. He quickly became our mascot and lookout, watching for kids from other blocks that might look to start trouble with us.

Not only was I able to get to know Clarence, but I would visit and say hello to Miss Lillian nearly every day. Sometimes she would even give me a present.

When Louis Armstrong died in July, 1971, I remember WPIX carrying the funeral live on television. There, I got to see Clarence getting into a limousine. It confirmed for real, his relationship with the famed trumpeter.

As the years progressed and we all got older, we continued playing ball all the way through our college years. Clarence was there with us, watching and cheering us on as always. He was still making up trades. In fact, if the Mets hired Clarence, they may have won a few more pennants.

Clarence was Catholic and I would often walk and attend Mass with him at St. Phillip & James Church on Boston Road. Many parishioners would shy away, but I would sit with him in a side pew.

Sometimes when Clarence would ring my bell it wasn’t always about baseball. I can remember one time when he called on me to tell me a member of his daddy’s band had died.

After watching the documentary last night, I decided to look up information on Louis Armstrong, hoping to find mention of the adopted retarded son I knew as Clarence. Why I never did this earlier, I don’t know, but I was pleasantly surprised to find a link in the Wikipedia entry to a story written by Gary Giddins in the Village Voice in 2003

that outlined the history of Clarence. It turns out; Clarence was the son of Louis Armstrong’s cousin Flora. As Giddins’ account, posted below, points out, Louis began supporting Clarence when Louis was just 14. It became a lifelong pursuit, as Clarence was Louis’ only child.

“A few steps into the archive I was stopped dead by a pasteboard blowup of a photograph that had never been published, showing Armstrong and his adopted son, “Clarence Hatfield.” I had never given Clarence much thought, having heard he was mentally retarded and died a long time ago, hidden away.

But here he was: beaming backstage at the Band Box, a club in Chicago, in the 1940s, nattily dressed in a double-breasted suit not unlike the pinstripe tailored for Armstrong, who also beams, with unmistakable paternal pride (see the photo above – JD). Clarence and their relationship sprang to life, sending me back to Armstrong’s account in Satchmo: My Life in New Orleans, to appreciate for the first time its affectionate candor regarding his only venture into paternity. Clarence was born in 1915 to Louis’s teenage cousin, Flora, apparently after she was molested by an old white man her father felt powerless to challenge. Louis’s first sight of the baby washed “all the gloom out of me.” He took it upon himself, at 14, to get a job hauling coal (immortalized in the 1925 “Coal Cart Blues”) to support the baby and the ailing mother, and assumed full responsibility after Flora’s death, marrying his first wife and adopting the three-year-old at 17. In that period, Clarence fell off a porch and landed on his head; doctors judged him to be mentally impaired. When Louis married Lil Hardin in Chicago, Clarence joined them, and Louis never forgave Lil—who claimed that Clarence was never legally adopted—for her impatience with him. When he left Lil for Alpha, he brought Clarence along.

Eventually, Clarence was set up in the Bronx, where he was married in an arrangement of convenience financed by Louis.”

Miss Lillian eventually passed and I got married and moved to New Jersey, losing any connection I had with Clarence. My dad and brother who were still living there told me that his house had been boarded up and Clarence taken away one day. They never knew what happened. After reading Gary Giddins’ story, I now know he died in 1998. I now have to read Satchmo: My Life in New Orleans and learn more.

Clarence Armstrong forever changed my life for he taught me how to deal with others. Appearances and background don’t matter. It’s what’s inside a person that counts. It’s something I’ve tried to carry through on throughout my professional career.

I can still see him cheering for us, tongue hanging from his mouth and his Mets cap hanging sideways on his head as he jumped up and down. “Tommy, Tommy” I can hear him yell. “The Mets just got Albert Pujols. They gonna have a bad ass team this year!”

Tom Cosentino


  1. Greg Schmidt said,

    Thank you for telling the poignent story about Clarence. This just confirms to me what I’ve always suspected, and that is what an amazingly superb human being Louis Armstrong was.

  2. Jim Denham said,

    Greg: I agree with everything you say. I love Louis’s music and I love what I’ve heard and read about him as a human being.

    Don’t thank me for that post, however: thank Tom Cosentino, the author, and Michael Steinman of “Jazz Lives” for publishing it. Like you, I was very moved (in fact, to tears) by reading it.

    All the best


  3. Phil Lynch said,

    Wonderful story! I am researching Louis’s relationship w/ Clarence for a book of inspirational stories based on LA’s life. Thank you.

  4. Jim Denham said,

    Louis introduces Clarence in this June 11th 1949 edition of the Eddie Condon ‘Floorshow’ TV show (Eddie was ill in hospital, so the show was compared by Joe Bushkin), and the pride and love is obvious. A very moving moment. The music’s great as well, with Teagarden, Caceres and Louis to the fore:

  5. Megan Edwards said,

    This was very heart-warming. I am glad that i was able to find this on the internet!

  6. Alice said,

    Thank you for such and heartfelt story. History Bluff will definitely love it and now it has been immortalized.

  7. Eddie said,

    I accidentally stumbled into this tribute to Clarence. Beautiful, thank you very much. I have a sister, eight years my junior, who is mentally retarded since her birth in 1965 and we are as close as can be. I’ve been lucky to learn much from many but I’ve learned more from my sister, Shirley, than from anyone else in my life. She has been a wonderful jewel along my path, I love her dearly, and hope to live one second beyond her last breath so that I may look out for her forever. Thanks again for this beautiful tribute to Clarence.

  8. Jim Denham said,

    Thanks for that, Eddie. Best wishes to you and Shirley.

  9. Theresa said,

    Thank you for sharing your childhood memories.

  10. George W.Stewart said,

    A play titled “Letter From Louie” debuts November 12,2014 at Coahoma Community College in Clarksdale,MS.The story reveals the life of Louie Armstrong as he is challenged by God to do an imaginary gospel concert.As Louie struggles with accepting this calling he reflects on the struggles of his storied life(born poor,mob troubles and family issues).The story acknowledges Clarence as a special part of his life.

  11. Jeff Bauer said,

    There were great men in this country who left a major impact on everyone they came in contact with. These stories are left to only the few who venture to find them.
    Thank you Tom for sharing this amazing life story with us. May people unite over heartfelt stories like yours are find the courage to spread those selfless acts of love.
    God bless.

  12. Philippe Prud'Homme said,

    Wow! I have read your words about Mister Armstrong’s love of people especially for his son Clarence. Thank you for enriching my life with these beautiful words of respect and care that should have towards all of us.

    Merci et beaucoup pour vos belles paroles.

    Philippe Prud’Homme
    (Québec, Canada)

  13. Robyn said,

    Hi Tommy, my name is Robyn Scott, Louis Armstrong was my godfather, I use to spend my summers at the house on Fenton avenue with my two sister Rhonda and Kim. Clarence affectionately name me “skeeter” I love the story about him, Just like you he taught me patience for those that might be different.
    Thank You

  14. Lynne Fairley-Juliet said,

    Lovely article! I grew up around the corner from Clarence (Ooga Booga) and I remember the nephew paying his horn and Clarence sitting on his front porch. Everyone had a different story as to why he was brain-damaged but the real story is both tragic and beautiful. The elderly neighbors remember Mr. Armstrong driving them to wherever they wanted to go when he visited his nephew. I remember my brother and other little boys teasing Clarence because they were little boys who didn’t know better. Good memories.

    • Jim Denham said,

      Thanks for that, Lynne. This article has generated a lot of interest over the years and the story is, as you aptly put it, “both tragic and beautiful.”

  15. Luke Bloedel said,

    i almost cried, my brother is mentally challenged as well. i love everything about him and the armstrongs.

  16. Amand Keultjes said,

    Grand story: you have received a great blessing in your life!
    Thank you for telling this important story on Clarence Armstrong.

  17. lisadanielswall said,

    What a wonderful, yet bittersweet remembrance. Thank you so much for sharing your frank and touching story. You looked past a man’s awkwardness and saw what God wanted others to see. Such a great story.

  18. Kate Kelly said,

    Thank you so much for this post. I’m writing about Louis Armstrong’s childhood for my site,, and I am delighted to find more on Clarence. This is lovely.

    • Jim Denham said,

      What an interesting site, Kate. Thanks for the link, and please stay in touch. So glad to hear you’re writing about Louis – Ricky Riccardo’s the expert on all things Louis.

  19. V said,

  20. Valeria Cruz said,

    What a heartfelt sorry! This is a good lesson for all of us! Each one of us have feelings, thank God that you learned who he belonged to, you were able to show him love and understanding. So sad for other children and adults that have these challenges that don’t get thesame heart. God less you for extending your self.

  21. Theresa Azzaretto said,

    This was amazing to read 🙂 Thank you for sharing it 🙂

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